Work and Labor

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Bonobo Sex and Society "This finding commands attention because the bonobo shares more than 98 percent of our genetic profile, making it as close to a human as, say, a fox is to a dog. The split between the human line of ancestry and the line of the chimpanzee and the bonobo is believed to have occurred a mere eight million years ago. The subsequent divergence of the chimpanzee and the bonobo lines came much later, perhaps prompted by the chimpanzee's need to adapt to relatively open, dry habitats [see "East Side Story: The Origin of Humankind," by Yves Coppens; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, May 1994].
   
Insect Societies "The integrated division of labor within the insect colony (with the various castes of workers and soldiers) has been achieved by selection of single queens. (In later evolution, the nest acquires such strong entitativity that queen replacement and even multiple queens can occur.) In the ants, the probable initial stage was brood-care help by daughters with postponed fertility. This created an ecology in which only nests with such auxiliary helpers survived. Nest (or colony) selection began at this point. Postponed fertility was probably augmented by a pheromone exuded by the fertile mother."
   
Neo-Tech Home Page "The often misunderstood division-of-labor concept is central to all beneficial relationships, ranging from individual man-woman romantic relationships to mutually beneficial employer-employee relationships involving thousands of people. Next to their attacks on individual rights through the use of government force, the most harmful neocheating manipulations by feminist leaders are their attacks on the voluntary division-of-labor concept. Some feminists advocate eliminating the division-of-labor dynamic from man-woman relationships. They demand, for example, that all jobs, chores, and activities be shared equally."
   
REAL BASIS OF IDEOLOGY, THE "From the first there follows the premise of a highly developed division of labour and an extensive commerce; from the second, the locality. In the first case the individuals must be brought together; in the second they find themselves alongside the given instrument of production as instruments of production themselves. Here, therefore, arises the difference between natural instruments of production and those created by civilisation. The field (water, etc.) can be regarded as a natural instrument of production. In the first case, that of the natural instrument of production, individuals are subservient to nature; in the second, to a product of labour."