Before we move on to the links associated with this subject I'd like to take a moment to offer you several scholarly articles and books written on this, one of the most vile subjects we deal with in Sociology. I cannot claim responsibility for this information because it was taken from another website by one of my students who failed to list the citation. If anyone comes across the origin of this information I would greatly appreciate knowing the source so that I may give them the credit they so richly deserve.

Review Article

Bernard R. Boxill's "Racism and Related Issues," Encyclopedia of Ethics, edited by Lawrence and Charlotte Becker (New York: Garland, 1992), Vol. II, pp. 1056-59 provides an excellent overview of work on race and related issues.

There is an extensive and often powerful literature dealing with the prevalence of racism in our society. Derrick Bell's Faces At The Bottom Of The Well: The Permanence Of Racism (New York: Basic Books, 1992) provides a penetrating look at the pervasiveness of racism in the United States today. Patricia J. Williams's The Alchemy of Race and Rights (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991) is part autobiography, part feminist legal philosophy, and part cultural critique. Cornel West's Race Matters (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993) and his Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993) are both well-argued analyses by one of the foremost contemporary African-American thinkers. Shelby Steele's The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America (New York: Harper Collins, 1990) offers a much more conservative interpretation of these phenomena. Stephen L. Carter's Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby (New York: Basic Books, 1991) stresses the ambiguity of affirmative action for African- Americans. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation, edited by Gerald Early (New York: Penguin Press, 1993) contains a number of insightful autobiographical essays on the ambivalence toward assimilation experienced by many contemporary African-Americans. Naomi Zack's Race and Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993) offers a perceptive analysis of many of the issues surrounding mixed race in our society.

Several excellent anthologies contain shorter selections on these issues. See, especially, Racism in America: Opposing Viewpoints, edited by William Dudley (San Diego, CA.: Greenhaven Press, 1991), which contains an excellent selection of largely popular pro-and-con pieces on a number of topic related to racism; Taking Sides: Race and Ethnicity, edited by Richard C. Monk (Guilford, CN: Dushkin Publishing Group,. 1994), which treats a wide range of issues relating to ethnicity as well as race; Race, Class, and Gender in the United States, Third Edition, edited by Paula S. Rothenberg (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995), which is a gold mine of eloquent selections; Bigotry, Prejudice, and Hatred: Definitions, Causes, and Solutions, edited by Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1993), which contains an number of excellent philosophical selections; and Anatomy of Racism, edited by David Theo Goldberg (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990), which contains pieces by Appiah, Outlaw, Fanon, Barthes, Kristeva, Said, Goldberg, and Gates. The transcript of a two-day conference on "Race and Racism" is printed in Salmagundi, Nos. 104-105 (Fall, 1994-Winter, 1995), pp. 3-155; this consists of a round-table discussion including Orlando Patterson, Christopher Lasch, Dinesh D'Souza, Anthony Appiah, Jean Elshtain, David Rieff, Michelle Moody-Adams, Norman Birnbaum, and Gerald Early. Also see Women of Color in U.S. Society, edited by Maxine Baca Zinn and Bonnie Thornton Dill (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), a collection of 16 essays, largely from social scientific standpoints .

Among the specifically philosophical approaches to racism and related issues, see the issue of Philosophia, Vol. 8, No. 2-3 (November, 1978) that contains several articles on racism, including Marcus George Singer, "Some Thoughts on Race and Racism," pp. 153-83; Kurt Baier, "Merit and Race," pp. 121-51; and Peter Singer, "Is Racial Discrimination Arbitrary?", pp. 185-203; also see the double issue of Philosophical Forum, Vol. 9, Nos. 2-3 (1977-78), entitled "Philosophy and the Black Experience" and the triple issue, "African-American Perspectives and Philosophical Traditions," Vol. XXIV, Nos. 1-3 (Fall-Spring,1992-93). See Kwama Anthony Appiah, "Illusions of Race," In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp.28-46, for a discussion of the slipperiness of the concept of race.

On the relationship between racism and sexism, see Richard A. Wasserstrom, "On Racism and Sexism," in Today's Moral Problems, Third Edition, edited by Richard A. Wasserstorm (New York: Macmillan, 1985), pp. 1-28; and Laurence Thomas, "Sexism and Racism: Some Conceptual Differences," Ethics, Vol. 90 (January, 1980), pp. 239-247.

Claims of racially-based differences in intelligence have been frequent over the ages. In recent times, see Arthur Jenson, "How Much Can we Boost I.Q. and Scholastic Achievement?" Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 39, No. 1 (1969), pp. 1-123; William Schockley, "Dysgenecs, Geniticity, and Raciology," Phi Delta Kappan (January,1972), pp. 297-307; and, most recently, Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein, The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press, 1994). Equally common have been strong critiques of such connections, including Steven Jay Gould, Ever Since Darwin (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977) and Ashley Montagu, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race, Fourth Edition (Cleveland: World, 1964).

Web Page Title

A Question of Fairness by
Juan Williams of the Atlantic Monthly, (1987).

This is an interesting portrait of Clarence Thomas before he was nominated to the Supreme Court. "Clarence Thomas, a black, and the chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, does not believe in integration, affirmative action, or the possibility of a colorblind society. His job, he believes, is to protect individuals, not groups."
Anti-Racism / Anti-Fascism Links Long Haul Infoshop.
Anti-Racism Web NL (now Magenta) A meeting place for anti-racism organizations, migrant organizations and refugee organisations in the Netherlands.
(Anti-)Rassismus und -Faschismus A German collection of resources on anti-racism and anti-fascism. Includes a list of extreme right-wing organizations. Editor: Marcus Gottleben (Darmstadt).
Artists Against Racism "We are all one People. With different Faces. From different Places. But we are all one people". "OUR MISSION: TO BUILD an UNDERSTANDING of all peoples. To speak to the youth, the future of our global community, about the basic human right of equality, so that a civilized society will, in the next millennium, finally result."
Anti Racism Information Center (ARiC) A documentation and advisory center focused on combating racism & discrimination. The center compiles more than 11,000 titles: books and brochures, training- and other means for education and social-cultural work, newspaper- and magazine articles, study reports, and thesis on various subjects.
Beyond the Nationalism of Fools Toward An Agenda for Black Intellectuals," The Boston Review, 1996 by Eugene F. Rivers.
Beyond Prejudice "Prejudices exist. It is an undeniable force within our society, so prevalent that it can be found within the most open-minded people and enlightened organizations, subtly taking its toll despite the best of intentions. To recognize the insidious and pervasive power of prejudice is to take the first step toward defeating it. Assigning blame or guilt, however, will only yield avoidance, denial, and defensiveness. Understanding that prejudicial thinking can be greatly diminished through commitment and education will bring people
together to successfully solve this shared problem."

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: 40 Years Later

Woodstock Report, June 1993, no. 34, pp. 3-10. On April 22, 1993, a Woodstock forum addressed the progress of African-American education since Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the 1954 landmark decision of the Supreme Court which called for racial integration of public schools. Panelists were Samuel Harvey, Jr., vice president for urban affairs at Georgetown University; Dr. Floretta Dukes McKenzie, former Superintendent of Schools in the District of Columbia; and Roger Wilkins, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of History and American Culture at George Mason University. Moderator of the forum was Jim Vance, an award-winning journalist and anchor for News 4, WRC-TV in Washington, D.C

Black Nationalism on Campus

"Nationalism among middle-class blacks mystifies other Americans. The author (Nicholas Lemann) reports on his conversations with black college students." from the Atlantic Monthly, 1993.

The Code of the Streets

"A prominent black sociologist traces the origins of a powerful inner-city psychology of respect which creates a perverse etiquette of violence--and holds even "decent" youths in its grip." (Elijah Anderson, Atlantic Monthly, 1994).
Crosspoint Anti-Racism "he Crosspoint is the Net's biggest collection of links in the field of of Human Rights, Anti-Racism, Refugees, Women's rights, Antifascism, Shoah, etc.. Also we list links to Jewish organizations, Migrant organizations and others. If your organization has a site or homepage on the Web and is not listed here, please submit your URL. We update the Crosspoint once a month, so don't be alarmed
if you submit a site and it is not listed within a few days."
Expo Sweden's independent anti-racist magazine, published by Hillstiftelsen, the Hill Foundation (in honor of the intrepid anti-Nazi Ray Hill, who spent several years infiltrating the British neo-Nazi movement and the European Nazi terrorist networks). Expo's platform is a defense of democracy and freedom of speech, against racist, extreme-right and totalitarian groups and ideologies.
How Heritability Misleads about Race The Boston Review, XX, no 6, January, 1996, p. 30-35. "According to The Bell Curve, Black Americans are genetically inferior to Whites. That's not the only point in Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's book. They also argue that there is something called "general intelligence" which is measured by IQ tests, socially important, and 60 percent "heritable" within whites. (I'll explain heritability below.) But the claim about genetic inferiority is my target here. It has been subject to wide-ranging criticism since the book was first published last year. Those criticisms, however, have missed its deepest flaws. Indeed, the Herrnstein/Murray argument depends on conceptual confusions that have been tacitly accepted to some degree by many of the book's sharpest critics."

Interracial Coalitions

"For conservatives, positing a "new generation" of moderate black politicians preserves the Reagan-era contention that the problems facing minorities are largely of their own making."
by Paul Ruffins of the "Atlantic Monthy", 1990.
Interracial Voice  "IV is published every other month as an independent, information-oriented, networking newsjournal, serving the
mixed-race/interracial community in cyberspace. This electronic publication advocates universal recognition of mixed-race
individuals as constituting a separate "racial" entity and wholeheartedly supported the initiative to establish a multiracial category on the 2000 Census."
Issue Before the Court: Who Gets Ahead in America, The? Atlantic Monthly, 1977) This is about the Alan Bakke case in Califoenia. "The case revolves around one white man's claim that he was discriminated against in favor of blacks, but far more is at stake in the deliberations now getting under way before the Supreme Court of the United States. Is America ever really going to be the Land of Opportunity for all its citizens?"
My Race Problem--and Ours The Atlantic Monthly (May, 1997). "A consideration of touchy matters -- racial pride, racial solidarity, and racial loyalty -- rarely discussed." "WHAT is the proper role of race in determining how I, an American black, should feel toward others? One response is that although I should not dislike people because of their race, there is nothing wrong with having a special -- a racial -- affection for other black people."

New Racialism, The

"The liberals have been confusing their vocabulary, talking of "racism" when they mean "racialism," and have been abandoning their traditional opposition to decentralized government and racial quotas. The results may be dangerous."
 "No" to English Only Initiatives Before Congress There is no official language in the United States. Should English be required as the offical language? This raises a number of interesting moral and political questions. What role does language play in ethnic identity? To what extent should the state permit ethnic identity? encourage it? To what extent is a common language necessary for political community?
Origins of the Underclass Atlantic Monthly. July, 1986. "The first installment of this two-part article described why black urban ghettos are poorer and more isolated today than they have ever been. The question remaining is how to reverse the effects of what has become a self-sustaining

Other Underclass

Atlantic Monthly. December, 1991
Power of Rights A Review of The Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary of a Law Professor, by Patricia J. Williams." The Boston Review.  "As a meditation on the searing injuries of racism, on hidden histories in the entrails of legal cases, or on the bankrupt character of contemporary American political life, the effect of Williams's alchemy is powerful beyond measure. Still, the argument expressed in the book's title -- about the special alchemy of race and rights-- gives pause, especially in view of the condition of black America 30 years after the Civil Rights movement."
Project RACE "Multiracial people should have the option of recognizing all of their heritage. "Multiracial" is important so that children have an identity, a correct terminology for who they are. "Other" means different, a label that no person should bear. Also, without proper racial and ethnic classifications, multiracial people are "invisible" in the health care system."


"When Americans talk about government spending, about welfare, about crime, about unemployment, or about values, they are to some degree also talking about race. Race is the subtext of American politics."

Race and the Schooling of Black Americans

"At every educational level something depresses black achievement, writes the author, a well-known social scientist. That something, he believes, goes beyond poverty, social isolation, and poor preparation: it is stigma."
Racism, Intelligence and the Working Class published by the Progressive Labor Party.
Resources on Affirmative Action  

Resources on Racism and the Environment

Interesting set of resources dealing with racism and the environment.
Responsibility of Intellectuals in the Age of Crack The Boston Review. "What follows is an open letter from Reverend Eugene Rivers. Immediately addressed to the Boston-Cambridge intellectual community, Rivers' letter speaks at the same time to a much broader audience: in fact, to anyone interested in the fate of the urban poor in the United States. A pastor and social analyst, Rivers works every day with poor women and children in Boston's Dorchester and Roxbury neighborhoods. In their name, he asks us to reflect on the moral meaning of intellectual life."
The three following links are responses to the above article:  
Discussion Regina Austin, Selwyn Cudjoe, Bell Hooks, Randall Kennedy, and Eugene Rivers, moderated by Margaret Burnham
Forum Margaret Burnham, former Associate Justice at Boston Municipal Court and lecturer in Political Science at M.I.T; Henry Louis Gates, Jr., W.E.B DuBois Professor of the Humanities and Director of the W.E.B. DuBois Institute at Harvard University; bell hooks, Visiting Professor in Women's Studies at City College of New York; Glenn Loury, Professor of Economics at Boston University; and Cornel West, Professor of Religion and Director of the Afro-American Studies Program at Princeton University. The discussion was moderated by Anthony Appiah, Professor of African-American Studies at Harvard and a member of the editorial board of the Boston Review.
Reverse Racism, or How the Pot Got to Call the Kettle Black "In America 'whites once set themselves apart from blacks and claimed privileges for themselves while denying them to others," the author writes. "Now, on the basis of race, blacks are claiming special status and reserving for themselves privileges they deny to others. Isn't one as bad as the other? The answer is no'."
Searchlight "Searchlight's aim is to combat racism, neo-nazism, fascism and all forms of prejudice. Searchlight is a non-sectarian organisation in political, ethnic and religious terms. It believes in achieving the broadest possible unity in the fight against racism, neo-nazism, fascism and prejudice."
The following are a list of some of the landmark decisions make by the Supreme Court of the United States.  

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954--Brown I)

Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955--Brown II)  
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke  
Supreme Court Decisions on Discrimination  
Supreme Court Decisions on Affirmative Action  
Supreme Court Decisions on Civil Rights  
The following links are to "Talk of the Nation" shows relating to racism.  
Afrocentrism Guests: Mary Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities at Wellesley College, Author of Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth As History (Basic, 1996); Maulana Karenga, Professor and Chair, Department of Black Studies, California State University. July 9, 1996
Ebonics Guests: Jack White, National Correspondent, Time Magazine in Washington, DC; Dr. Richard Wright, Professor of Linguistics, School of Communications, Howard University, Author of African American Oratory, The Encyclopedia of African American History and Culture. Published by the Institute for Culture Studies at Columbia University. January 21, 1997.
Louis Gates and Cornel West Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Professor of Humanities, Harvard University, Chairman, Harvard University African-American Studies, Co-Author of The Future of the Race (Knopf, 1996); Cornel West, Professor of African-American Studies, Harvard University. April 4, 1996 .
United Nations Human Rights Instruments  
What's Wrong with Ethnic Cleansing? Journal of Social Philosophy 26:1 (1995): 5-15.  "This paper analyzes the concept of ethnic cleansing, attempts to deepen our understanding of why it generally merits harsh condemnation, and considers whether its milder forms are sometimes permissible."

White Northerner: Pride and Prejudice

"In the course of his research into the day-to-day realities of race relations Dr. Coles, a psychiatrist in the Harvard University Health Services, found little ground for the smugness Northerners frequently display when they talk of integration and the South."