Native American Histories and Other Websites

General Native American Written Histories   Native Americans in Mexico
Midwest Tribes Native Americans in Canada Native American Timelines
Native American Magazines Native American Oral Histories Photographs and Photographic Archives
Northeast Tribes Northwest Tribes Southeast Tribes

Native American Oral Histories

Web Page Title Comments
American Indian Oral History Collection "This microfilm collection consists of transcripts from Navajo and Pueblo Indian interviews and from a Native American perspective, is a unique historical resource. Universities from seven states, including the University of New Mexico, participated in the project."
American Society for Ethnohistory "The American Society for Ethnohistory (ASE) was founded in 1954 to promote the interdisciplinary investigation of the histories of the Native Peoples of the Americas. The ethnohistorical method, as it has come to be known, involves developing histories informed by ethnography, linguistics, archaeology, and ecology."
Comments On Carving Soapstone "As told to Rhoda Innuksuk and translated by Maudie Qitsualik. Editor, Susan Cowan. An extract from the book 'Arctic Bay' soon to be published by Canadian Arctic Producers."
Dehcho: "Mom, We've Been Discovered!" "This book is intended to portray the significance of our Great River, Dehcho, to the Dene. Through a variety of means, (legends, poems, photographs, explorers' journals and illustrations) we hope that readers will get a new sense of importance of the river, and a greater appreciation of history from a Dene perspective."
Interviewing Inuit Elders "The preservation of traditional knowledge and the oral tradition is important both to Inuit identity and morality in the political context of the development of Nunavut. It is important to Inuit that the traditional knowledge passed on by the elders is not lost and that it is incorporated into new structures to be set up by the Nunavut government."
Inuit Cultural Perspectives  
Memories Come To Us in the Rain and the Wind "The book of 25 interviews is part of the campaign of Navajo uranium miners and their families to gain compensation for the great loss in death and illness brought about by mining uranium, with no warning of its ill effects, during the Cold War era of 1947- 1971."
Oral Histories of the Mi'kmaq People "In 1984-85, Indian Brook was visited by a native of the western tribes, a medicine man named Albert Lightning. He had concerns about the Nova Scotia Mi'kmaq, believing they were losing touch with their culture and traditions. Since the time of Mr. Lightning's visit, however, there has been a renewed interest in Mi'kmaq practices, traditional beliefs, and language, though there is always more to be learned. As the Mi'kmaq people say, there must be a life long journey for knowledge."
Oral Narratives and Aboriginal Pasts: An Interdisciplinary Review of the Literatures on Oral Traditions and Oral Histories 
Our Elders Interviews with Saskatchewan Elders
People From Our Side: A Life Story with Photographs and Oral Biography 
Puiguitkaat This is a transcript of the 1978 Elders Conference held in Barrow, Alaska.
Spirit of White Earth: Winnie Jourdain, a Survivor's Spirit "The people of the White Earth Indian Reservation lost their land, endured humiliation and persevered through great hardships to keep their culture alive. This is their story -- and the legacy of one remarkable woman, Winnie Jourdain."
Voices from a Troubled Land Navajo (Diné) elders tell of their struggle to survive on Big Mountain, Arizona.
We Don't Live in Snow Houses Now: Reflections of Arctic Bay  
When Everybody Called Me Gah-bay-bi-nayss: "Forever-Flying-Bird  
Wounded Knee Oral History  

General Native American Written Histories

Web Page Title Comments
1492: An Ongoing Voyage "1492. Columbus. The date and the name provoke many questions related to the linking of very different parts of the world, the Western Hemisphere and the Mediterranean. What was life like in those areas before 1492? What spurred European expansion? How did European, African and American peoples react to each other? What were some of the immediate results of these contacts?" This site tries to answer some of these questions.
A Short History of Native American Codetalkers in WWI and WWII "The story of Washington's recognition of the American Indian Code Talkers is a case study of our cultural problems when it comes to Native American peoples. It made BBC online when President Bush's kid had a ceremony honoring the most celebrated of them, fifty-six years late, this last July."
A Guide to the Ohio Valley-Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archive "The Ohio Valley-Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archive is a unique assemblage of primary and secondary resources pertaining to the Native American occupancy of the region. It includes nearly a thousand microfilm reels, reproduced maps and other documents, ethnic group data files, detailed reports for many Indian treaty areas, indices that assist in using portions of the collection, and correspondence records."
Ancient Astronomies: This site contains links to various places to find out what the ancients knew about astronomy. Directly below this link are four other good sites for this information.
The Dresden Codex "The codex was written by eight different scribes, each with their own distinctive style, type of glyphs and subject matter. It is linked to the Yucatecan Maya in Chichén Itzá, the extraordinary ancient Mayan city situated in the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. It  was made between A.D. 1200-1250, and was still possibly in use when the conquistadors arrived."
The Sacred Sky of the Navajo and Pueblo "Throughout both the Pueblo and the Navajo history, each of their cosmologies developed as products of the observations and interpretations of the societies' environment. For this reason, many similarities exist between both cultures. The sky, in particular, acted as a primary element in their cosmologies. Interestingly, the interpretations of the Navajo and Pueblo varied considerably, although they were influenced by the same physical environment day in and day out."
The Mystery of the Nazca Lines "The 'Nazca lines' is the name given to the huge lines, trapezoids and animal figures that are etched into kilometer after kilometer of this plain. The pampa was originally covered with black, wind-smoothed rock -- the lines were created by removing these black-colored rock fragments and topsoil to reveal the light-colored sand underneath."
Timeline of Astronomical History in the Americas This is a timeline but has little relation to astronomical events. I'm trying to find a better link for this subject.
Computerized Information Retrieval System on Columbus and the Age of Discovery "As its contribution to the 500th Anniversary of The Encounter of Two Worlds, Millersville University of Pennsylvania created and installed The Computerized Information Retrieval System (CIRS) on Columbus and the Age of Discovery in 1989."
Early Modern Trans-Atlantic Encounters: England, Spain and the Americas This site presents papers that were given at this conference.
First Nations Histories "These Compact Histories are presented here to provide information to those interested in learning more about the First Nations."
First Peoples of the Northeast "Esther and David Braun have assembled an excellent introductory text on the archaeology of northeastern America. In the manner of such regional overviews, the text begins chronologically with Paleoindian sites and continues through the European contact period."
Great Lakes Project: The Geographic Location of Potawatomi Bands: 1795-1846 "The major objective of this report has been to determine the location of the various bands of Potawatomi Indians at the time treaties ceding land to the United States were made and simultaneously to determine the extent to which these same lands were occupied by other Indian tribes at the time of the respective cessions."
Louisiana Purchase "The Louisiana Purchase has been described as the greatest real estate deal in history. In 1803 the United States paid France $15 million for the Louisiana Territory--828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River. The lands acquired stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border. Thirteen states were carved from the Louisiana Territory. The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States, making it one of the largest nations in the world."
Native American Conquest "Hernando de Soto explored America for a seaway to China in order to trade Spain's New World gold. He followed trails that we use as highways. His records describe Native Villages along those trails at places that are cities again today. Conquest Trails in Fourteen States are presented here."
Native American Documents Project "This collection currently includes the narrative reports of the commissioner of Indian affairs for 1871, 1872, 1875, and 1876, and three additional reports for 1871. It also includes a map of western reservations published with the 1875 report."
Native American Heritage Museum "Share in the journey of the Great Lakes Indians who were forced to emigrate to Kansas in the 1800s, adapting their traditional woodlands cultures to the rolling prairie landscape. At the museum, once a Presbyterian Mission built in 1845 to educate Iowa and Sac and Fox children, you will find quillwork, baskets and other artwork of present-day descendants of emigrant tribes."
Pictures of Our Nobler Selves

"Many citizens across the nation currently are upset because many American Indians deeply resent and protest against distorted depictions of them in the media. Residents of cities such as Atlanta and Cleveland and Kansas City don’t understand why members of most Native American tribes object to cartoon-like portrayals of them as Braves or Indians or Chiefs. Part of the answer, of course, is that Native Americans, having been stripped of identity, dignity and distinction for more than two centuries, are convinced that false media caricatures have helped rob them of their history."

Rainbow Family "When the earth is ravaged and the animals are dying, a new tribe of people shall come unto the earth from many colors, classes, creeds, and who by their actions and deeds shall make the earth green again. They will be known as the warriors of the Rainbow -- Old Native American Prophecy"
Thanksgiving Resources This site offers several resources but be prepared for the bad links on the page.
Index to the Interviews with Angie Debo, 1981-1985 "In subsequent years she was primarily a researcher and writer of books on the Five Civilized Tribes, Geronimo, and the history of Native Americans and of Oklahoma. She also was a teacher, pastor, and director of the Federal Writers Project in Oklahoma. From 1947-1955 she was curator of maps at Oklahoma A&M College. After retirement in 1955 she wrote, lectured, traveled, researched family histories, served on the boards of directors of the Oklahoma Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union and the Association on American Indian Affairs, made surveys for the Indian Rights Association, and lobbied for land rights for Indians in Alaska and for water rights for the Havasupai and Pima in Arizona."
Native Americans in Canada


Web Page Title Comments
Cedar Uses by Aboriginal People "Their wood cells contain high concentrations of tannins, aromatic oils and resins that inhibit the growth of wood- decomposing fungi and bacteria. This high rot-resistance along with its straight grain, light weight and thin fibrous bark have made the cedar a very useful tree to the Aboriginal Peoples of British Columbia."
First Nations of the New France Era "The land of America has been home to the First Nations for thousands of years. With the arrival of Europeans, a new era began that would work profound changes on the lives of Native societies."
Historical Atlas of Canada From the beginning to 1800 "It is not known when the ancestors of the Palaeo-Eskimos crossed from Asia to Alaska - whether 10 000 years ago on the Bering Land Bridge or about 5 000 years ago by boats or on winter ice. Certainly they came from Asia. The Palaeo-Eskimos' harpoons, microblades, burins, bows, and tents (with two sleeping or work areas separated by a mid-passage containing a central hearth) all derive from old northern Asiatic traditions."
History of the Keeseekoowenin Ojibway First Nation, the "Riding Mountain Band"  "The Keeseekoowenin Ojibway First Nation has been known by many names in the past. At the time before our people entered in Treaty 2 with the British Imperial Crown in 1871, our people were called the Riding Mountain Band, because our people lived in the Riding Mountains."
History of the Oujé-Bougoumou Cree  "The history of the Ouje-Bougoumou Crees throughout the better part of this century is a sad story of abuse, dispossession, and neglect by the combined efforts of mining and forestry companies and successive governments at both the provincial and federal levels."
Indian Treaties These are "Selected Treaties from the National Archives of Canada Record Group 10 (RG 10), Records relating to Indian Affairs."
James Scomiak - Songhees Chief ""Comey-uks" is the second person listed on one of the aboriginal treaties made by Governor James Douglas in 1852. This treaty was called the South Saanich Treaty, but included the area south of the territory of the Saanich people, from Cowichan head to Mount Douglas."
John Rogers Jewitt "It is my goal to produce, maintain and host a comprehensive site posting and linking to available materials about John Rodgers Jewitt - making this site a gateway for anyone who wants to know more."
Living History This is a group of pictures about the "First People" as show at the National Archives of Canada.
Moment in Time: Fort Steele: A Historic Metaphor ""Moment in Time: Fort Steele - A Historic Metaphor" will allow you to discover a slice of British Columbia's history. Fort Steele became a settlement in 1864 during the Kootenay Gold Rush. By browsing through stories and viewing photographs of the period between 1864-1898, you will experience life in Fort Steele through the eyes of the early white settlers, the Ktunaxa people and the North West Mounted Police."
Native People of the Grand River Valley "During the last ice age, 15,000 years ago, Asia and North America were connected near the Bering Sea by a 1,000 mile wide grassy plain. Primitive hunters followed herds of large game animals across the land bridge to spread over North America during the next ten centuries. These people were named ‘Clovis Point People’ by archeologists because their distinctive stone tools were first found in Clovis, New Mexico."
Native Soldiers, Foreign Battlefields This discusses the wartime contributions of the First People of Canada.
Northern Approaches "Although the evidence is meagre, it suggests that northern European sailors built and used sea-going ships at least as early as did Mediterranean peoples. Boats or small ships with high curved stems and sterns are common in Scandinavian rock art dating from earlier than 1000 B.C., and a thousand years later Julius Caesar described large vessels used by the Celtic tribes of northwestern Europe."
Northwest Rebellion (Canada) "The purpose of this site is to improve access to materials relating to the Northwest Resistance of 1885 held by the Special Collections Department of the University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University of Saskatchewan Archives. It contains a searchable database of bibliographic records. A number of the items have been digitized (such as photographs) and transcriptions of others are available as HTML documents. These images and texts are appended to the appropriate records in the database."
Old World - New World  "When Europeans from the Old World came to the New World of the Americas in the 16th century, they observed thousands of native societies speaking a variety of languages. These cultures ranged from small, loosely organized bands of hunter-gatherers living in small settlements, to highly organized agricultural societies with large cities."
Short History of the Northwest Coast The title says it all.
Totem Poles "The human images on the posts represent ancestors or ancestral privileges. The small creatures depicted on two of the posts are said to be minks, animals used in a cleansing ritual to wipe away impurity or shame from an afflicted person."
Victoria Belcourt Callihoo "The daughter of a Cree medicine woman, she went to her first buffalo hunt in a Red River cart at age 13, when the great western bison herds could still be described as "a dark solid moving mass." She later farmed with her husband, Louis Callihoo, and raised 12 children. An expert teamster, she also freighted for the Hudson's Bay Company between Edmonton and Athabasca Landing."
Who Killed William Robinson? "The documents do not just tell about their deaths. "Who Killed William Robinson?" is just the first of the questions you may ask of this web site. "How did he live?" is another. In the documents that follow there is a rich social history of the Blacks, Aboriginal People, Kanakas (Hawaiians) and Whites of many national backgrounds, from Azorian Portugese to the British colonial elite, who settled Salt Spring Island."

Native Americans in Mexico

Web Page Title Comments
Artes e Historia México  This site is written in Spanish which (unfortunately) I don't speak well so I can't tell you much about it. If any of my Spanish speaking readers would like to furnish a description, I would be happy to include it.
Aztec History This is a student/teacher resource center with many links to books and articles relating to Central and South American history.
Aztec Manuscripts "What follows herein is a loose aggregation of information about surviving examples of Aztec writing that follow a pre-conquest pictorial tradition, dating primarily from the 16th century."
Cultural and Historical Topics in Latin American History in a Multimedia Environment "The ancient cities died, but in the world of politics and power, the vacuum is always filled. Commanded by their god of war, the fierce Huitzilopochtli, the Aztecs began to swoop down from the north, to found a city in the lake, where an eagle perches on a cactus devouring a serpent. They named the city Mexico, which means "the navel of the moon." Founded in 1325, it is the oldest living city in the Americas."
Documents on Mexican Politics "The papers collected here used to reflect the experiences gained over sixteen long years of personal political work. Their new focus will reflect the effects democratic change, its possible avenues, and its potential outcome."
Latin American Library, Tulane University "The Latin American Library, located on the fourth floor of Tulane's Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, is one of the world's foremost collections of source materials in Latin American archaeology, anthropology, history, linguistics, art, architecture, film, women's studies, economics, and many other subject areas."
Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection This site comes from the University of Texas-Austin on-line library.

Native American Timelines

Web Page Title Comments
  All of these websites are pretty much self-explanatory in their title.
A Native American Timeline  
Cherokee History Timeline  
Essential Chronology  
Lakota Winter Counts  
New Mexico Timeline  
On This Date In North American Indian History  
Plains Indian Timeline  
Timeline for Pikuni (Blackfeet) history  
TimeLine: 1673 - 1800 for the European presence in Illinois  
Timeline Developed for the PBS series The West  
Timeline for the History of Fort McMurray  
Time-Line to Museum Collections within New Mexico  
Timeline Covering pre-Columbian Times to the Early Twentieth Century  
Timeline for the Big Mountain-Black Mesa Region  
Timeline for the Quest for a Northwest Passage (Arctic Route) to the East  

Native American Magazines

Web Page Title Comments
  These are all magazines that you can subscribe to.
American History Illustrated Magazine  
American Indian Art Magazine  
American Indian Art and Ethnographica Magazine  
National Geographic Magazine  
Native Peoples Magazine  
Smithsonian Magazine  

Northeast Native Americans

Web Page Title Comments
Alphabetic Roster of Individuals in Earle Report "Through a legislative Act of 1859, John Milton Earle, Worcester politician and newspaper publisher, was appointed to investigate the social condition of Massachusetts Indians and advance recommendations whether they should be placed on the same legal footing as other residents of the Commonwealth."
Carlisle Indian Industrial School 

"If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man he would have made me so in the first place. 
He put in your heart certain wishes and plans; in my heart he put other and different desires.
Each man is good in the sight of the Great Spirit. It is not necessary, that eagles should be crows."
..Sitting Bull (Teton Sioux)

Documents from Nipmuc History "The Nipmuc Nation whose petition for federal recognition (69a) was first submitted to the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1980--has received notice from the BIA's office of Federal Acknowledgement that its final determination of this matter has again been extended, this time to May 1, 2004."
Early America: the Native and Colonial Northeast "I don’t believe you can understand Native American cultures unless you are keenly aware that everything they do is spiritually related. Everything. Everything has Manitou, Life: everything is Life in itself. They never designed anything for design’s sake....Nothing, from the slightest little thing to the universe itself, was ever taken for granted by Native Americans. Life was in all things, and they respected that life."
First Peoples of the Northeast "Esther and David Braun have assembled an excellent introductory text on the archaeology of northeastern America."
Guide to Records Relating to Native America "The New York State Archives was established in 1971 and opened its doors to the public in 1978. It is a program of the State Education Department, with its main facility located in the Cultural Education Center on Madison Avenue in Albany. There it cares for and provides access to more than 130 million documents that tell the story of New York from the seventeenth century to the present."
History as Romantic Art: Bancroft, Prescott, Motley, and Parkman Pay attention to chapters 6, 7, and 8.
History of the Horseneck Riots "The main problem involved in my study of the Horseneck Riots was to determine their causes and to find the main arguments used by the Proprietors and the Rioters in justifying their courses of action."
History of the Indian King Tavern "The Lenape once ruled the area that is now Haddonfield as well as the rest of the Delaware Valley. Left, a Lenape king. Right, recreation of a Lenape hut."
Indians on Long Island "They arrived thousands of years ago when the ice was finally gone, a trickle of big-game hunters who sought out shelter near freshwater streams and lakes. They had been walking for centuries, generation after generation, traveling imponderable distances, continent to continent. When they arrived in the land that divided into two forks at its easternmost end like the tail of a great fish, they were as far east as they could go."
Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets "Despite his fame, Jeffrey Amherst's name became tarnished by stories of smallpox-infected blankets used as germ warfare against American Indians. These stories are reported, for example, in Carl Waldman's Atlas of the North American Indian [NY: Facts on File, 1985]. Waldman writes, in reference to a siege of Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) by Chief Pontiac's forces during the summer of 1763."
Lenape Village at Waterloo Village
"The Lenape way of life has been faithfully recreated on an island called "Winakung" (meaning "Place of Sassafras") in Historic Waterloo Village. Here there are no teepees, no feathered war bonnets, no fringed buckskins or other trappings reminiscent of the TV Indians, who are usually associated with the Great Plains or the Southwest. Instead, Winakung is a life-sized Minisink Indian Village carefully built on actual archaeological evidence and scholarly research."
Lenni-Lenape "The Schuylkill watershed was inhabited by the Lenni-Lenape people when the European explorers arrived. They were labeled the "Delaware" by the settlers, after the European name for the river alongside which they lived. They were a part of the Algonquin language group, and were under the political influence of the Iroquois Confederation. By and large they were a peaceful people. They were typical hunters and gatherers, although they also practiced farming, raising corn, beans and squash as staples of their diet."
"Like the Shadows in the Stream" Local Historians, The Discourse of Disappearance and Nipmuc Indians of Central Massachusetts "In one of the more widely read nineteenth-century texts on New England Native Americans, Samuel G. Drake’s Book of Indians, the Nipmucs were labeled "long extinct." When first mentioned by English immigrants in the 1630s, Nipmucs were described as a powerful nation, the only Natives of the interior of Massachusetts. They occupied a series of homelands bounded by the New Hampshire border stretching from Sudbury to the Connecticut River, extending south towards Hartford along the river, incorporating northeastern Connecticut and northern Rhode Island, continuing through Mendon and Medway back to the Sudbury, Marlborough and Concord area."
Marks in Time: Delaware Treaty History "Welcome to a unique, on-line resource for Delaware treaty history. The Delaware, or Lenape, tribe of Indians, signed the first-ever "Indian treaty" with the newly-born United States of America in 1778. To date, the Lenape people, now located in Oklahoma and Canada, have suffered betrayals, massacres, and at least seven "Trails of Tears," all marked by multiple treaties and multiple relocations."
Massachusetts State Archives Microfilm Card Index of Native Americans "The following is a transcription of the Native American microfilm card index housed at the Massachusetts State Archives. This index may be found to be a useful tool to those interested in the study of New England Native American history. I will give a brief explanation of what the index is, followed by how it may be used."
Nanticoke Indian History "The Nanticoke Indians once roamed the area of what is now Maryland and Delaware. The Last villages and Reservations On Delmarva were dissolved during the decade preceding 1750. The people from Delmarva were relocating to the North and West."
Native Americans of Central Massachusetts, A People Who Had "Vanished" "The following chapter on Nipmuc history was published in a shortened version in AFTER KING PHILIP'S WAR, PRESENCE AND PERSISTENCE IN INDIAN NEW ENGLAND, edited by Colin Calloway of Dartmouth College and published by the University Press of New England in 1997."
Native American Individuals Identified within Earle's Report This is basically a census taken in 1861 in a small area of the northeast US.
Plymouth Colony "In late December of 1620, one hundred and two men, women, and children began to establish the second English permanent settlement in the New World. They christened their plantation New Plymouth after their last port of call in England. Within the next few decades, New Plymouth gave rise to numerous townships and communities in the area that came to be known as New England."

Southeast Native Americans

Web Page Title Comments
A Biography of Sequoyah "Near the town of Tanasee, and not far from the almost mythical town of Chote lies Taskigi(Tuskeegee), home of Sequoyah. In this peaceful valley setting Wut-teh, the daughter of a Cherokee Chief married Nathaniel Gist, a Virginia fur trader. The warrior Sequoyah was born of this union in 1776."
Among the Creeks

"Much information is available on the Creeks as a people and as tribes. I seek to look at the individuals they were. And at the families. And at how they strived to survive the influx of Whites. And at how they fought for their homes. Yet assimilated successfully with the Whites when there seemed no other way to live. Most were finally driven from their territory but some stayed. And of the ones that are gone, their stories remain, and this is what I desire to share."

An Introduction to the Creek Nation "Prior to the early 18th Century, most of Georgia was home to American Indians belonging to a southeastern alliance known as the Creek Confederacy. Today's Creek Nation, also known as the Muskogee, were the major tribe in that alliance."
Chickasaw Historical Research "As a member of the Chickasaw Nation, I have been concerned about the lack of historical information about this proud nation. After searching the Internet for information, documents, etc., concerning the history of the Chickasaw Indian Nation, and not being very successful in finding useful sources, I have decided to create just the sort of "web page" that I have been looking for"
Cherokee Nation "The Cherokee Nation, largest of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast, is a people of Iroquoian lineage. The Cherokee, who called themselves "Ani'-Yun' wiya" or "Principal People", migrated to the Southeast from the Great Lakes Region. They commanded more than 40,000 square miles in the southern Appalachians by 1650 with a population estimated at 22,500."
Heritage of the Ancient Ones of Florida "Florida's Native People were never organized as large political units (tribes). Rather they practiced chiefdomships; whereby the chief and individuals of several small villages chose an overall leader (usually the chief of the area's principal town). Principal towns were formed when a village grew too large for the natural environment in that area to support the population level."
History of the Caddo Indians "In a study of the history of Caddo Parish, Louisiana, an interest was developed in the Caddo Indians who were aborigines of the parish, and since no adequate study had been made of these interesting people it became my purpose to give an account of them from the time when first met by the white man until about 1845."
History of the Cherokee "Birds were sent down to find a dry place to live but none could be found. The Great Buzzard, the father of all buzzards we see now, flew down close to the earth while it was still soft. He became tired and his wings began to strike the ground. Where they struck the earth became a valley and where they rose up again became a mountain and thus the Cherokee country was created."
Illini Confederation: Lords of the Mississippi Valley "When French explorers first journeyed down from Canada to the upper Mississippi Valley in the early Seventeenth Century, they found the region inhabited by a vigorous, populous Algonquin nation who called themselves "Hileni" or "Illiniwek" which means "men." (1). This the French rendered as "Illinois"."
Muscogee (Creek) History "The Muscogee (Creek) people are descendents of a remarkable culture that, before 1500 AD, spanned all the region known today as the Southeastern United States. Early ancestors of the Muscogee constructed magnificent earthen pyramids along the rivers of the this region as part of their elaborate ceremonial complexes. The historic Muscogee later built expansive towns within these same broad river valleys in the present states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida and South Carolina."
Native American Land Cessions in Georgia "Since the first Creek(Yamacraw) cession by Mico Tomochichi to James Oglethorpe in 1733, land had been a major concern of the settlers. Cessions by both Creek and the Cherokee did nothing to quench the insatiable thirst for land that the Georgians had."
Native Americans of Virginia "As of the 1990 census, there were 16,391 Native Americans currently residing in Virginia. Some are members of Virginia's recognized tribes. Representatives from tribes all over the United States now consider Virginia home."
North Carolina History "At the time of the first European contact, North Carolina was inhabited by a number of native tribes sharing some cultural traits, but also distinguished by regional and linguistic variations. Three major language families were represented in North Carolina: Iroquoian, Siouan, and Algonquian. The Iroquoian tribes--the Cherokee, Tuscarora, Meherrin, Coree, and Neuse River (which may have been Iroquoian or Algonquian)--were related linguistically and culturally to the Iroquois tribes to the north."
North Georgia History "The last pre-historic cultural development in North America was the Mississippian Culture, thriving from approximately 800 AD until the arrival of European explorers. The Mississippian Culture spanned from Wisconsin and Minnesota in the north, through Georgia to the south, and westward into the Great Plains."
Northwest Georgia's Chieftains Trail "The Chieftains Trail was designated by the 1988 Georgia General Assembly a state historic trail for the purpose of preservation, promotion and commemoration of Northwest Georgia's Native American heritage. The Chieftains Trail guides travelers to nine public sites representative of the Indian cultures which once thrived here in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains."
Seminole History " The Seminoles of Florida call themselves the "Unconquered People," descendants of just 300 Indians who managed to elude capture by the U.S. army in the 19th century."
Taino History "Taino culture was the most highly developed in the Caribbean when Columbus reached the Island of Hispaniola in 1492.  Islands throughout the Greater Antilles were dotted with Taino communities nestled in valleys and along the rivers and coastlines, some which were inhabited by thousands of people."
Talking Leaves and the Cherokee Phoenix "Realizing a key to development of the Cherokee Nation was a written language, Sequoyah began work on a graphic representation of the Cherokee language. The syllabary, officially listed as being completed in 1821, took 12 years to create. Sequoyah came up with the idea of "Talking Leaves" when he visited Chief Charles Hicks, who showed him how to write his name so he could sign his work like American silversmiths had begun to do."
Tennessee History

"For all but the last 200 years of the 12,000 years or so that this country has been inhabited, the story of Tennessee is the story of its native peoples. The fact that Tennessee and many of the places in it still carry Indian names serves as a lasting reminder of the significance of its native inhabitants. Since much of Tennessee’s appeal for her ancient people as well as for later pioneer settlers lay with the richness and beauty of the land, it seems fitting to begin by considering some of the state’s generous natural gifts."

The Trail of Tears "Between 1790 and 1830 the population of Georgia increased six-fold. The western push of the settlers created a problem. Georgians continued to take Native American lands and force them into the frontier. By 1825 the Lower Creek had been completely removed from the state under provisions of the Treaty of Indian Springs. By 1827 the Creek were gone."
Virginia Council on Indians "March, 1982, the House of Delegates, the Senate concurring, created a subcommittee consisting of eleven members to undertake a comprehensive study of the historic dealings and relationship between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Virginia Indian Tribes."

Midwest Native American Tribes

Web Page Title Comments
American Hero: Tecumseh "With the Revolutionary War over and the Iroquois divided, the opposition to American expansion into the Ohio River valley was carried on by a shifting alliance of nations: Shawnee, Canadian Iroquois, Wyandot, Mingo, Ottawa, Chickamauga, Miami, Kickapoo, Delaware, Ottawa, Ojibwe, Potawatomi, Fox, Sauk, and Mascouten.  In the fall of 1787 the alliance agreed to draw the line against American expansion on the Ohio River."
Angie Debo Collection "Angie Debo (1890-1988) was a child when her parents moved to Marshall, Oklahoma Territory in 1899, ten years after the land was opened by the "Run of 1889." She saw a rough frontier evolve into an active vigorous state and remembered well what she observed. Debo was a lady with strong beliefs who followed her convictions, which led her to write about the history of Oklahoma, of Marshall, and of American Indians and the relations between them and the federal government."
Articles on "Indians" from the Handbook of Texas Online "Ethnologists have identified hundreds of groups of Texas "Indians," as the first European explorers to arrive called the peoples they found. Some of these were true tribes, accumulations of families or clans with social customs, traditions, and rules for order; these were occasionally quite large."
Band Affiliation of Potawatomi Treaty Signatories "Geographically contiguous villages and settlements of the Potawatomi Indians acted as quasi-political units, commonly designated as bands. This practice had its inception in the Potawatomi's own regard for the autonomy of the local group and their desire to be treated as separate groups."
BlackHawk War of 1832 "In May of 1832 Sac and Fox Indians under the leadership of Black Hawk left the Iowa territory and returned to their homes across the Mississippi River in northern Illinois. These Native Americans had lost their Illinois lands in a disputed treaty signed in St. Louis in 1805."
Fort Phil Kearny/Bozeman Trail Association "The dramatic story of Fort Phil Kearny represented a 'microcosm' of the early events in the West and was a forerunner to the events at the Little Big Horn a decade later. It was the story of the Indians, emigrants, the military, civilian contractors, Indian and white women and children as well as warriors and soldiers."
From Site to Story "Welcome to a pioneering research site that will guide you through an exploration of the Upper Mississippi's buried past in Minnesota."
Great Lakes Project "With a consideration of the earlier habitat and migrations of the Potawatomi and other Indian occupations on lands ceded to the United States by the Potawatomi Indians."
Grinter Place State Historic Site "Overlooking the historic Delaware Crossing on the Kansas River, the stately Grinter Place was home to Moses and Annie Grinter. Visit the brick farmhouse, built in 1862. It is located near the site of Grinter's Trading Post, where he traded with the Lenapi (Delaware) Indians."
Guide to the Ohio Valley-Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archive "The Ohio Valley-Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archive is a unique assemblage of primary and secondary resources pertaining to the Native American occupancy of the region. It includes nearly a thousand microfilm reels, reproduced maps and other documents, ethnic group data files, detailed reports for many Indian treaty areas, indices that assist in using portions of the collection, and correspondence records."
History of the Blackfeet Tribe  "Acknowledged as one of the most powerful tribes in the American northwest, the Blackfeet are a confederacy of three independent tribes presently living in Montana and Alberta, Canada. The name "Blackfeet" originates from the distinctive black hue of their mocassins, either painted that color or perhaps darkened by prairie fires."
History of the Wyandot Nation of Kansas "The Wyandot Nation of Kansas is made up of those formerly known as "absentee" or "citizen class" Wyandot Indians.  The Wyandot Nation of Kansas is currently petitioning the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs for federal recognition and was incorporated in 1959."
Introduction to Dakota Culture and History "Many of the lodges or societies of the Lakotas were social in character, while others arose for very serious puposes, particularly those brought into existence by dreams or visions. The Buffalo Lodge was a social order which held no secret meetings. Its members, who joined only upon invitation, were braves, mostly old or middle-aged men, who met for the purpose of keeping alive their war records, telling stories, singing the lodge songs, dancing, and playing games."
Introduction to Ojibway Culture and History "According to Professor Dennis Jones who teaches the Ojibway language at the University of Minnesota, either Ojibwe or Ojibway are actually correct spellings, but some people feel Ojibwe should be the preferred standardized spelling. I have chosen to use the Ojibway spelling only because that is the way I originally learned it. If I had it to do over again I would probably use Ojibwe."
Introduction to the Prehistory of Indiana "An Introduction to Indiana Prehistory is written in order to make available in summary from some of the answers to commonly asked questions about Indiana archaeology and prehistory. The impetus for it derives from the almost daily inquiries archaeologists receive from a varied public, for which archaeology and the numerous evidences of Indian occupation in the state have some attraction."
Iowa (Ioway) Nation "The Ioway Nation presents the most comprehensive information on the Iowa (or Ioway) tribe to be found anywhere on the Internet, including the contemporary situation. Like all websites, it is continually growing and responding to user needs and concerns."
Kaw Mission State Historic Site "Visit this historic stone mission where 30 Kaw (or Kansa) Indian boys lived and studied from 1851 - 1854. The U.S. Government removed the Kaws to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, in 1873. The Kaws, known as "The People of the South Wind," gave our state its name."
Maawanji'iding - Gathering Together "Wiinindib" means knowledge "makak(oons)" is a (small) container or box...Wiinindibmakakoons - (Little box of knowledge, or Little Brain-Box) is the Ojibwe word that the elders group at Lac Courte Oreilles gave the Laptop computer, during field production work and review in 1994."
Meskwaki "Contrasting patterns are a distinctive feature of Meskwaki art in which often seeming chaotic arrangements take on a new pattern on close inspection. This duality is expressed in the function of Meskwaki art as well."
Muscogee (Creek) History "The Muscogee (Creek) people are descendents of a remarkable culture that, before 1500 AD, spanned all the region known today as the Southeastern United States. Early ancestors of the Muscogee constructed magnificent earthen pyramids along the rivers of the this region as part of their elaborate ceremonial complexes."
Native American Heritage Museum "Share in the journey of the Great Lakes Indians who were forced to emigrate to Kansas in the 1800s, adapting their traditional woodlands cultures to the rolling prairie landscape."
Native Americans Section of James Madison: His Legacy "The following is an excerpt from a longer piece written by Benjamin Franklin about 1784.  Franklin clearly does not regard Native Americans as "savages": he is using the term for ironic effect.  The "savages" are, in fact, as civilized or more civilized than the Whites: it is the Whites who must rely upon force, punishment, and prisons to enforce good behavior."
Ohio Valley-Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archives: The Miami Collection "THE OHIO VALLEY-GREAT LAKES ETHNOHISTORY ARCHIVES: THE MIAMI COLLECTION. Please note: Articles from the Miami Archives are numerous. This section will be continuously added to and updated."
Oklahoma History "My "Grandma" Riddle, being a Cherokee Indian, was educated at the Eastern State Normal School, where she learned to be a teacher to her people. I thank her for leaving me the many history books which she kept, read, and loved, and which were instrumental in my becoming a bibliophile. I will forever owe them a dept of gratitude."
Otoe-Missouria "The people who would become the Missouria, the Otoe, and the Ioway once belonged to the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Nation, one of the Siouan tribes of the Great Lakes region.  At some point, a large group separated themselves and began to migrate to the south.  In the simplest sense, the Ioway settled along the Mississippi River, the Missouria settled along the Missouri River, and the Otoe settled farther west."
Pawnee Indian Village State Historic Site "Feel the spirits of the past surround you as you gaze across the floor of this 1820s earth lodge. As many as 2,000 Pawnees lived in this village of more than 40 lodges."
Pawnee Rock State Historic Site "For travelers on the Santa Fe Trail, this sandstone citadel was one of the most prominent landmarks on their long journey. Native Americans were said to have met at Pawnee Rock and reputedly used it as a vantage point to spot bison herds and approaching wagon trains."
Pioneering the Upper Midwest: Books from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, ca. 1820-1910 "The online books in this digital collection are made up of the digitized page images and transcribed, searchable text of some of the books from the Library of Congress's General Collections and (in a few cases) its Rare Book and Special Collections Division. Each book is also described in a bibliographic record that links to the searchable text and page images."
Shawnee Methodist Mission "Come and see the manual training school attended by Shawnee, Delaware and other Indian nations from 1839-1862. The Shawnee Mission served as an early territorial capitol, supply point on the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails and a camp for Union soldiers during the Civil War."
Short History of Ft. Sill, OK "Sheridan's massive winter campaign involved six cavalry regiments accompanied by frontier scouts such as "Buffalo Bill" Cody, "Wild Bill" Hickok, Ben Clark and Jack Stilwell. Troops camped at the location of the new fort included the 7th Cavalry, the 19th Kansas Volunteers and the 10th Cavalry, a distinguished of black "buffalo soldiers" who constructed many of the stone buildings still surrounding the old post quadrangle."
Tejas: Life and Times of the Caddo  "Four hundred years ago the valleys and tributaries of the Ouachita, Red, Sabine, and Neches rivers in what is today northeast Texas, northwest Louisiana, southwest Arkansas, and southeast Oklahoma were home to an extraordinary society of farmers, warriors, potters, priests, and traders, the ancestors of the people known today as the Caddo."
Texas Indians "This site is here to provide kids with a good source of information on Texas Indians. This site is no where near complete yet. It may never get finished. In fact, I hope it is never finished."
Texas Indians and Texas Place Names  "Tracing place-names derived from Indian words, or associated with Indian groups or places, is not always easy. The Spanish explorers and missionaries, who were the first Europeans to enter Texas, often adopted Texas Indian names for rivers and other natural features."
Tribal History "The Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation is part of the Great Sioux Reservation that was established under the Treaty of 1868. This treaty established a reservation of 60,000,000+ acres that encompassed all of western South Dakota, North Dakota, Eastern Wyoming, and parts of Nebraska and Montana."
Yankton and Santee Sioux "The Yankton Sioux Reservation is located in the south central part of South Dakota, occupying the eastern half of Charles Mix County. The Yankton Service Unit is comprised of six counties; Bon Homme, Charles Mix, Douglas, and Hutchinson, SD and Boyd and Knox, NE."

Southwest Tribes

Web Page Title Comments
1868 Fort Laramie Treaty

"In this treaty, signed on April 29, 1868, between the U.S. Government and the Sioux Nation, the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people."

A History of Dineh Cooperatives, Incorporated (DCI) "The Navajo Nation, which occupies 25,000 square miles of land in parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, was the largest and one of the most resource rich Indian territories in the country in the 1960s. Its development had long been hampered, however, by its status as a Native American reservation. The U.S. government had first begun a campaign to "pacify" the Navajo people and thoroughly disrupt their way of life during the Mexican War. After a protracted battle to retain their ancestral lands, the Navajo people were forced to accept a treaty in 1868 that relegated them to their present territory, and effectively categorized them as second class citizens."
American Character: The Curious Life of Charles Fletcher Lummis and the Rediscovery of the Southwest "Charles Fletcher Lummis, almost always attired in his trademark well-worn, dark green, Spanish-style corduroy suit, soiled sombrero and red Navajo sash, went on to become one of the most famous and colorful personalities of his day as a book author, magazine editor, archaeologist, preserver of Spanish missions, advisor to President Theodore Roosevelt and a crusader for civil rights for American Indians, Hispanics and other minority groups."
An Archaeological Survey of the Sabino Canyon Ruin Area "Until the 1980's very few Hohokam sites in the Tucson Basin had been excavated and analyzed. Why then have hundreds of sites been unearthed in the 1990s? How have these sites been discovered? Fortunately for archaeologists, Pima County enacted an ordinance stating that in order to change the zoning status or start construction on private lands in the county, the land must be surveyed by a state-approved archaeologist before development or rezoning can occur."
Brief History of Sabino Canyon "The earliest visitors to Sabino Canyon are believed to be hunter-gatherers of the Clovis culture. [Guide, p.2] They hunted big game, such as bison, Columbian mammoth, and other large mammals that lived in southern Arizona when the climate was cooler and more moist. Later, as the climate changed, the Cochise culture became dominant. The Cochise hunted small game and gathered edible plants."
California as I Saw It: First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849-1900 This book consists of the full texts and illustrations of 190 works documenting the formative era of California's history through eyewitness accounts. The collection covers the dramatic decades between the Gold Rush and the turn of the twentieth century.
California Mission Studies Association "Founded in 1984, CMSA is a nonprofit public benefit corporation formed with the following educational purposes: To preserve, advance and promote the Hispanic period historic resources in the State of California; To advance and promote development of archaeological, historical, museum and archival resources; To promote, conduct and coordinate research projects resulting in the preservation and restoration of period landmarks; and To encourage and support educational opportunities for interested students of the Hispanic period and for persons of the public community regardless of color, race, creed, sex or age."
Captain Jose Panto and the San Pascual Indian Pueblo in San Diego County 1835-1878 "With the arrival in 1833 of the Mexican appointee, General Jose Figueroa, as the new governor of California, the final implementation of a plan for the widespread secularization of the missions was completed. The process of emancipation of the Indians and dividing up the land was commenced on July 15, 1833 when Figueroa issued his Prevenciones Provisionales."
Chronology of the Aboriginal Peoples of San Diego County "This chronology documents the major events in the history of San Diego's first inhabitants--the Native Americans who were in residence before Spain sent explorers to the West Coast of the Americas, before missionaries came north from Mexico, before the Mayflower set sail for the New World, before Mexico awarded land grants to its California colonists, and before California became a part of the United States of America."
Chumash Indians - Native People of Southern California "My research interests frequently focus on the ethical issues associated with colonialism and religious intolerance. My perspective is not only the moral and spiritual impacts on the victims of colonialism and dogmatism, but also on their impact on the perpetrators of injustice and their descendants."
Colorado Ute Legacy "This web site is sponsored by the Southern Ute Indian Cultural Center. The site and database support our 30 minute educational video COLORADO UTE LEGACY which has been distributed to over 500 Colorado schools."
Costanoans, the Ohlone, and Prehistory of San Francisco Bay "When the Spanish first established colonies in California in the late 1700's, Alta California was the home of more than 300,000 Indians—a greater number than in any comparable area north of Mexico. The historic period Native Californians were by no means "primitive," however."
Desert Documentary: The Spanish Years, 1767 - 1821 "The purpose of this book is to provoke more questions than it answers and to open new doors. It gives a sampling of what has not been told about Arizona history. Zane Grey novels and Hollywood movies give the false impression that all the research has been done and all the facts are known. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Veteran anthropologists and historians are the first to admit that we have barely started."
Excavations at the Sabino Canyon Ruin, 1937-1950 "Having selected our site, we sank a shaft in the northwest corner about two feet from the line of rocks. About two feet down we found a hard-packed surface which we assumed to be the floor. Working out from the shaft toward the stones, we found the wall of the pit."
Five Views: A History of American Indians in California "The history of California Indians is a different story from that of other ethnic groups who came in the last few centuries as immigrants to an already populated land. For Indians, this is their homeland, and their history spans more than 10,000 years of occupation."
Great Basin Project "The Continental Divide is hydrographically defined by whether surface waters flow to the Atlantic Ocean or to the Pacific Ocean. Crudely speaking, it is formed by the Rocky Mountains. It's shape is an irregular arc that bulges to the east as far as central Colorado and it runs more-or-less south by southeast from the northwestern corner of Montana, along the Canadian border, to the southwestern corner of New Mexico, along the Mexican border."
History of the Ft Lowell Neighborhood "The earliest settlers in the Fort Lowell District came around 300 A.D. Since then, different communities have come and gone leaving behind their characteristic remains. These people were attracted to the area for the same reason: an abundance of water and fertile soil. Here the Tanque Verde and Pantano washes come together to form a new waterway, the Rillito."
History of Native Nevadans through Photography "This on-line exhibit is an adaptation of one curated by Lee Brumbaugh and shown at the Nevada Historical Society in 1997. Of necessity, several sections of the original have been omitted and the number of photographs reduced -- from over one hundred, to fifty-four."
History of Navajo Weaving "It has often been said "the land was good for nothing else so we gave it to the Indians". Nothing could be further from the truth. The original Navajo, the T'aa dine' chose this very area some 6 to 7 centuries age. This nomadic people arrived and apparently lived in harmony with the existing Anasazi until the latters' disapearence or assimilation."
History, Culture, and Environment of the Hopi and Navajo Tribes "This document covers the ancient and modern history of the Anasazi, Hopi, Navajo, and neighboring peoples of the Four Corners region, with information on the cultures and environment of the Southwestern Colorado Plateau."
Hovenweep National Monument This is a well laid out site giving good historical information on the Anasazi Indian culture.
Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site "Feel the old wooden floor give slightly beneath your footsteps and hear it squeak as you enter the front door of the oldest continuously operating trading post on the Navajo Nation."
Ishi and Yahi Culture "Over thousands of years, the Native peoples of the present state of California developed many complex cultures, with differing customs related to varied environments and histories. At the time of Spanish settlement in 1769, there were as many as 100 distinct culture groups, each speaking a different language. At the same time, because of marriage, trade, and communication, many fundamental ways of life were shared throughout California. With an estimated 310,000 people at contact, California was one of the most densely populated regions in Native North America."
Legends in Sand- The Evolution of the Modern Navajo Sandpainting "In this brief paper we will examine the Navajo sandpainting as a religious item and as an art item. A brief history will be necessary as will a discussion of the sandpaintings, as art forms that are used and made today. Lastly we will look at the evolution of the art form. As mentioned, this paper is quite brief and only touches the surface. A list of references is included for any one wishing to pursue this discussion in greater depth."
Lovell's Report on the Cahuilla Indians - 1854 "As early as the autumn of 1849 plans were made to establish a post on the western approaches to Cajon Pass, an important crossing through the Coast Range and one often used by parties of raiding Indians. Eventually, in August, 1850, Captain Lovell and his company were ordered to proceed from San Francisco to San Pedro by sea and take post at the Rancho Santa Ana del Chino."
Maps of the Pimería: Early Cartography of the Southwest "This exhibit illustrates and describes a selection of original rare and historic maps chosen from the Map Collection of the University of Arizona Library. They portray a region of New Spain once called Pimería and chronicle four centuries of mapping from the earliest map of the region in the collection, a 1556 view of North and South America, up to the Gadsden Purchase of 1854 when Pimería Alta--or southern Arizona--was acquired by the United States from Mexico."
Mission 2000 "Mission 2000 is a searchable database of Spanish mission records of the Pimería Alta (southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico) containing baptisms, marriages, and burials from the late seventeenth century to the mid-nineteenth century."
Muwekma Ohlone History "For ten thousand years or more the ancestors of the Muwekma Ohlone Indians lived, gave birth, hunted and fished. They harvested a great diversity of fruits and vegetables."
Native California Cultures "Over thousands of years, the Native peoples of the present state of California developed many complex cultures, with differing customs related to varied environments and histories. At the time of Spanish settlement in 1769, there were as many as 100 distinct culture groups, each speaking a different language."
Online Archive of New Mexico "The Online Archive of New Mexico is a single, integrated source for searching and navigating finding aids to archival collections. These finding aids, usually called guides or inventories, contain descriptive information about archives and manuscript collections housed at research institutions in New Mexico."
Rio Grande Historical Collections "The Rio Grande Historical Collections/Hobson-Huntsinger University Archives serves a dual function in the New Mexico State University Library  by acting as a repository for non-current university records and for manuscripts and personal papers documenting the cultural heritage and history of New Mexico and the Southwest."
Rocky Boy Reservation: a History "Rocky Boy's provides a home for about 2,500 members of the Chippewa-Cree tribe. The name "Rocky Boy" was derived from the name of a leader of a band of Chippewa Indians. It actually meant "Stone Child," but it was not translated correctly from Chippewa into English, and “Rocky Boy” evolved."
Sabino Canyon Ruin Survey: What We Found "We now know there are several dense artifact concentrations that probably represent locations where the Hohokam had lived in pithouses, outside the ruin's visible surface housing compounds. These heavy artifact scatters and other architectural features we located suggest the Sabino Canyon settlement was founded by pithouse-building Hohokam Indians between A.D. 1000 and 1100 near where Sabino and Bear creeks converge."
San Manuel Band of Mission Indians (Serrano) History "The San Manuel Band of Mission Indians are of the Native American tribe known as "Serrano," a name given to us by the Spaniards which means "mountaineer." Long before the Spaniards and other European settlers arrived here, our ancestors roamed a territory that spanned the San Bernardino Mountains and valley, and adjoining desert lands. In our native language, we call ourselves "Yuhaviatam," or "people of the pines."
Second Century of Dishonor: Federal Inequities and California Tribes "A report prepared by the UCLA American Indian Studies Center for the Advisory Council on California Indian Policy The Community Service / Governance / Census Task Force Report March 27, 1996."
Short History of the Hohokam People "Perhaps along these rivers the people of the "Desert Archaic" lived nine thousand years ago, for their arrow points have been found in the Santa Catalina Mountains. Certainly a people called the Hohokam built their towns and villages not long after the birth of Christ. By 250 A.D. the archaeologists have found that they built houses, made canals to water their fields, fashioned pottery, and raised their families."
Sociopolitical aspects of the 1775 Revolt at Mission San Diego de Alcala: an Ethnohistorical Approach "During the night and early morning of November 4-5, 1775, a force of Native Americans surrounded Mission San Diego de Alcalá, set fire to its fragile wooden structures, and attacked a small contingent of stunned Spaniards. The attack gave Alta California its first Catholic martyr and weakened Spain's already tenuous hold on its northern territory."
Southern Ute History "The oldest continuous residents of Colorado are the Ute Indians. It is not known exactly when the Utes came from the north and west and inhabited the mountainous areas of the present-day states of Colorado , Utah (which name comes from the Ute people), and New Mexico. We do know that the earliest Utes came into the present day United States along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains."
Spain, United States, & the American Frontier: Historias Paralelas "The Spain, United States, & the American Frontier: Historias Paralelas project represents progress toward the realization of a vision shared by leaders of esteemed cultural institutions in Spain and the United States. The fulfillment of this vision will result in a multimedia digital library portal which provides Internet access to the historical treasures of several institutions."
St. Anthony's Indian School in San Diego, 1886-1907 "LACKING a comprehensive school system for native Americans, during the latter half of the nineteenth century the United States government began to rely heavily upon various religious denominations to provide for the educational needs of the nation's Indians."
Vision Quest Many people have wondered about the Native American "vision quest", now learn about it from the book about the Sioux Nation. This is excellent information from the book about the Sioux Nation.
Web de Anza "Web de Anza provides students and scholars with primary source documents and multimedia resources covering Juan Bautista de Anza's two overland expeditions from the Sonoran desert to northern California, leading to the colonization of San Francisco in 1776."

Northwest and Alaskan Tribes

Web Page Title Comments
The below are segments from the PBS program, "New Perspectives on the West".  
1806 - 1848  
1848 - 1856  
1856 - 1868  
1868 - 1874  
1874 - 1877  
1877 - 1887  
1887 - 1914  
Children of the Sun "The Spokane Indians are of the Interior Salish group which has inhabited northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana for centuries. The native language spoken by the Spokanes is common to other Salish tribes with only a slight variation in dialect."
Coast Salish Maps "On this page is a map of the known permanent village sites (c.1800) of the Coast Salish people who lived--and still live--in the Puget Sound area of Washington State.  The full map takes about 2 minutes (56 kbps) to download below this text."
First People of Clackamas County "According to the Kalapuya Indians, long ago a hero named Tallapus (also called Coyote) came to the Willamette Valley from somewhere far over the Rocky Mountains. At this time, gigantic skookums (ogres) terrified the people of the Valley."
History of the Spokane Tribe "The Spokane Indians are of the Interior Salish group which has inhabited northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana for centuries. The native language spoken by the Spokanes is common to other Salish tribes with only a slight variation in dialect. Generally speaking, the Spokanes can converse easily in their native tongue with the Kalispels, Coeur d' Alenes, and Flatheads."
In the Beginning Was the Word "In confronting these documents, mostly written in Russian but some in the Alaskan Native languages of Aleut, Eskimo, and Tlingit, Dr. Ivanov has resuscitated the vibrant, incredibly moving human exchanges that took place between the priests of the Russian Orthodox Church in Alaska and Native Alaskans, during the years 1794 to about 1915."
Journals of Lewis and Clark "From 1803–1806, in an exciting journey to the Pacific Ocean and back, Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery mapped the lands, described the natural wonders, and encountered the peoples of western North America. But, as Walter Kirn wrote in Time, "If not for the . . . epic the captains scratched out while crouching on hillsides and squatting on riverbanks, we might not remember Lewis and Clark at all."
Native American Documents Project "This collection currently includes the narrative reports of the commissioner of Indian affairs for 1871, 1872, 1875, and 1876, and three additional reports for 1871. It also includes a map of western reservations published with the 1875 report."
Northwest Ordinance "Considered to be one of the most significant achievements of the Congress of the Confederation, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 put the world on notice not only that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi would be settled but that it would eventually become part of the United States. Until then this area had been temporarily forbidden to development."
Timeline for the Spokane Tribe "The Spokane Indians are of the Interior Salish group which has inhabited northeastern Washington, northern Idaho and western Montana for centuries. The tribe originally consisted of three bands: Upper, Middle and Lower. These terms applied to their location along the Spokane River."
Uncelebrated Anniversary "Today, January 23rd, fell on a Sunday back in 1870. At first light, in numbing cold, 200 dismounted U.S. cavalrymen lay spread out in ambush positions along snowy bluffs overlooking the Marias River in Montana and the large winter campsite of the Piegan leader Heavy Runner. The camp was surrounded, its warriors were away hunting, and the edgy troopers awaited the command to fire. Then the old chief came out of his lodge and walked toward the bluffs, waving a safe-conduct paper. An Army scout, Joe Kipp, shouted that this was the wrong camp; he was threatened into silence. Another scout, Joe Cobell, fired the first shot, dropping Heavy Runner in his tracks. What followed, according to Lt. Gus Doane who commanded F Company in the attack, was "the greatest slaughter of Indians ever made by U.S. troops."

Photographs and Photographic Archives

Web Page Title Comments
American Historical Images On File: The Native American Experience  "Many photographs and images in this collection are provided by the courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.  Images from the National Anthropological Archives may not be reproduced without specific permission of the National Anthropological Archives."
American Indian Occupation of Alcatraz Island  "A collection of unique photographs which historically document the 1969-1971 occupation of Alcatraz Island by Indians of All Tribes, Inc. These rare photographs were contributed by Ilka Hartmann, Michelle Vignes, and the National Park Service in order that students and researchers may have access to information that will provide insight into the occupation and those who were instrumental in the early activities of Indian protest and unified political activities by American Indian people."
Benedicte Wrensted: An Idaho Photographer in Focus "In 1984, while researching photographs for the Smithsonian's Handbook of North American Indians, Scherer found a collection of glass plate negatives at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in Washington, DC. Labeled only as "Portraits of Indians from Southeastern Idaho Reservations, 1897," the images were so compelling that Scherer had prints made for the Handbook - a 20 volume encyclopedia summarizing the anthropology and history of Indians and Eskimos of North America north of Mesoamerica."
Dawn of a New Day "Photographs on exhibit document the excavation of the Hohokam platform mound dated 1000 A.D. located at the Pueblo Grande Museum while Halseth was the director. The collection spans 1929 to the late 1950s, which demonstrates the years that archaeologists dedicate themselves to carefully "reconstruct" the past."
Domestic Architecture in the Comanche Village on Medicine Creek, Indian Territory, Winter "Anthropological interest in Plains Indian architecture has long focused on the periodic ritual gatherings in which social structure was symbolized in the formal arrangement of the village, the camp circle. Features of domestic architecture have received little attention. William S. Soule's series of photographs of a Comanche village on Medicine Creek, Indian Territory, in the winter of 1872 - 1873, shows a number of lodges, with associated features, and allows a two-dimensional examination of the spatial arrangement and domestic architecture of a Comanche village in the late pre-reservation period."
Early Photographers Of First Peoples In British Columbia "The adventurers and explorers who, during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, visited British Columbia needed a means to convey to their contemporaries at home what they had experienced during their voyages of discovery. Journals, ship's logs and diaries supplemented the oral accounts of their journeys. Accomplished artists recorded the flora, fauna, landscapes and peoples in sketches and watercolors prior to the advent of photography in the mid-nineteenth century."
Edward S. Curtis Photographs "For three decades Christopher Cardozo Fine Art has been the country's leading source of original works by Edward S. Curtis. Mr. Cardozo is the author of six books on Edward Curtis including "Sacred Legacy" and the award winning "Native Nations."
Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian: Photographic Images "The North American Indian by Edward S. Curtis is one of the most significant and controversial representations of traditional American Indian culture ever produced. Issued in a limited edition from 1907-1930, the publication continues to exert a major influence on the image of Indians in popular culture. Curtis said he wanted to document "the old time Indian, his dress, his ceremonies, his life and manners."
Gallery of the Open Frontier These are digital images relating to the old west and Native Americans.
Hopi Photographs of Adam Clark Vroman "The prints were made during the period 1961-1972 and comprise a numbered set, one of few ever produced."
Imaging and Imagining the Ghost Dance: James Mooney's Illustrations and Photographs, 1891-93 "Of all the incidents in recent American Indian history, the Ghost Dance of 1890 is probably without equal in evocative power. From the ecstatic dancing, the mysteriously patterned clothing, to the bloody snows of Wounded Knee, the Ghost Dance is pervaded with visually powerful images. But because they are so powerful, those images must be constantly examined; one must see as well as look."
Images of the Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains "The Project strives to broaden access to new constituencies by providing students, researchers, and the general public with direct access to important primary source material on the Plains Indian cultures currently only available by travel to Montana."
Nancy Bellzona's Picture Book "After thirteen years of research it is like a dream come true to know everyone in the world will be able to enjoy and hopefully learn from these old treasured photographs my grandmother, her mother, my father and mother so lovingly saved."
Native American Images at American Photochromes Here there are several images that you can click on to get additional information.
Native American Photographs "Since the earliest days of photography images have been made of Native American peoples. Although many different styles of photography developed, the vast majority of photographs were taken to serve the interests of the white American population."
North American Indians "Prior to the arrival of Europeans, ethnologists say North America's 5 million indigenous people were divided geographically into nine culture groups. Each group consisted of many different tribes. The use of the term North American Indians in reference to all the people of the continent is not intended to ignore the great differences among these people."
Panoramic Photographs "This exhibit of panoramic photographs is but a small sample of the wide variety of panoramic images in NARA`s still picture holdings located at the National Archives Building at College Park, Maryland. The exhibit photographs date from approximately 1864 until 1937."
Photographs from the Union Pacific Railroad Archives  "All images in the Photo Gallery are available for purchase. See Ordering Photo Gallery Images for more information. The images are from the Union Pacific Railroad archives. All graphics in the Photo Gallery appear in JPEG format."
Picture Collection Online "The Picture Collection Online is an image resource site for those who seek knowledge and inspiration from visual materials. It is a collection of 30,000 digitized images from books, magazines and newspapers as well as original photographs, prints and postcards, mostly created before 1923."
Reading Photographs "Extracting such information requires that one read the photograph. Reading a photograph involves identifying as many aspects of the images as possible, from the photographer, date, and photographic technology used to produce the image, through its subjects and locations, to the artifacts represented in the image."
Reading Historic Photographs: Photographers of the Pawnee "Historic photographs of American Indians, long used simply as images or as illustrations, can be sources of ethnographic and historical information, particularly about aspects of material culture. In documenting artifact use and distribution, photographs can supplement museum collections, which often lack that information."
Richard Throssel: Photographer of the Crows "Most of the photographs taken by Throssel depict the Crow, or Apsaroke, as they referred to themselves, from 1905-1910. By the early 1900s, the Crows, like other tribes in the country, were being encouraged to assimilate into mainstream white society on reservations."
Selected Photographs This is another collection of photographs.
Smithsonian Photographs These photos are from the Smithsonian.
Southern California Indian Images - California Heritage Collection  "The following images and their captions are from the California Heritage website and were drawn from several collections held at the Bancroft Library in Berkeley."
Visual Records Collections "Of the total holdings, approximately 110,000 images have been described and are readily available for public reference. The collection consists of historic photographs of all types from the earliest to modern forms, depicting the widest range of subjects relating to British Columbia's history and culture, with an emphasis on records created by government ministries."