|Web Page Title
||"The Anasazi residents of Chaco Canyon were attentive to
the movements of the heavens, that much is clear. The famous Sun Dagger on
Fajada Butte in the center of Chaco Canyon is a solar calendar that heralds
the winter solstice when a band of sunlight passing through between two
slabs intersects the center of a spiral. A square of light floods a notch in
the wall of Casa Rinconada's Great Kiva on the summer solstice, and
locations marked within the Great Kiva are thought by some to create a
simple stellar observatory."
||"The purpose of this page is
to provide easy access to information on all aspects of potato production
and storage contained on the SARDI horticulture web site. Links to relevant
staff, to contact for further information, and to related sites on the
internet, are also provided."
||from the indefatigueable Paula Giese
||"The Aborigines have lived in Australia for at least
40,000 years, and in all those long generations the land provided them with
everything they needed for a healthy life. They also learned to manage their
country in such ways that its resources renewed themselves and were not used
Alaska Native Knowledge Network
||" The Alaska Native Knowledge Network
is designed to serve as a resource for compiling and exchanging
information related to Alaska Native knowledge systems and ways of knowing.
It has been established to assist Native people, government agencies,
educators and the general public in gaining access to the knowledge base
that Alaska Natives have acquired through cumulative experience over
||"Astronomy has sometimes been called the world's first
science. Since the beginnings of human history, mankind has used
astronomical objects both as tools for improving daily life and as
inspiration for systems of belief. Many different cultures claim that the
celestial realm is inhabited by God or gods and that it has profound impact
on their daily lives. More practically, astronomical events help us to
predict the seasons, create calendars that keep track of past events, and
navigate on both land and sea."
American Indian Ethnobotany
||"Inside Aztec Center are lounges and facilities used for
activities and events. There is also an information center, as well as
places to buy food, concert tickets, and much more. At the food court, a
gathering spot in Aztec Center, students enjoy entertainment sponsored by
Associated Students (AS) Cultural Arts and Special Events."
Biopiracy and Indigenous
Calendar of the Aztecs
Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development
||"The Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and
Rural Development (CIKARD) at Iowa State University focuses its activities
on preserving and using the local knowledge of farmers and other rural
people around the globe. CIKARD was established at Iowa State University in
October 1987 to provide mechanisms to strengthen the capacity of domestic
and international development agencies involved in projects designed to
improve agricultural production and the quality of life in rural areas in
cost-effective and sustainable ways. Its goal is to collect indigenous
knowledge and make it available to local communities, development
professionals and scientists."
Eastern Native Seed
||"The Eastern Native Seed Conservancy, endeavors to
preserve rare genetic stock and in so doing is able to offer the
public a sampling of true rarity."
||"Ethnoastronomy generally involves learning about the
astronomical system of non-Western people. Questioning follows standard
ethnographic techniques, often beginning with the very general and radiating
both outward and inward. I work with the Mescalero Apaches, and originally
went to the Mescalero Apache Reservation to study children's free play."
||"Since the beginning of civilization, people have used
plants as medicine. Perhaps as early as Neanderthal man, plants were
believed to have healing powers. The earliest recorded uses are found in
Babylon circa 1770 BC in the Code of Hammurabi and in ancient Egypt circa
1550 B.C. In fact, ancient Egyptians believed medicinal plants to have
utility even in the afterlife of their pharaohs. Plants have been recovered
from the Giza pyramids and can be found on display in a dark corner of t
Access Excellence Resource Center he Cairo Museum."
Forests & Waters: Native-Centered Science
||"Contrary to stereotype,
Native American Indians do not have a "natural" affinity with
environmentalism. What they do have is lands with a long history of being
the dumping ground for uranium tailings, nuclear waste, and toxic chemicals.
Reviving traditional land-based spiritual/cultural practices, and inventing
new ones for the 21st century, play an increasingly vital part of many
reservation cultures threatened by environmental pollution and cultural
||"Welcome to Descendants of the Incas. We hope the images
and comments you explore will give you a flavor of the rich culture of Inca
people living today near the city of Cusco, once the capital of the Inca
of Prehispanic Calendars
||"Long Count or initial series counts the number of days
since creation, Aug 12, 3113 B.C. (according to the
Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation. Batkun count (days) = (((B*20 +
K)*20 + T)*18 + U)*20 + kins = 144000*B + 7200*K + 360*T + 20*U + kins. The
Mayan Calendar Round is composed of the Tzolkin and the Haab. The
Tzolkin is the name given to the period of 13x20= 260 days and includes a
numeral (1-13) and one of twenty signs (names)."
and Environmental Knowledge Systems
||"Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge unique to a
given culture or society. Indigenous agricultural and environmental
knowledge gained global recognition through the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, and documents such as the
World Conservation Strategy (International Union for the Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) 1980) and Brundtland Commission's Our
Common Future (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)
1987). Indigenous knowledge is an immensely valuable resource that provides
humankind with insights on how communities have interacted with their
||"Julio was wet from the pouring rain and frightened. He
ran through the streets of Polho, a community in Chiapas sympathetic to the
Zapatista rebels, to find Carlos, the health promoter. He explained to
Carlos, in Tzotzil, that his young wife Ana had delivered their first child
an hour ago and was still heavily bleeding at home."
Ix Chel Farms and the Panti
||"In 1981, Dr. Rosita Arvigo, an American doctor of
naprapathy, moved with her husband and family to Belize, where they were
determined to start a farm in the jungles of Western Belize and establish a
natural healing clinic. "Dr. Rosita" (as she is fondly known in Belize) had
studied herbal medicine in Mexico, and she began to hear stories of an old
Mayan traditional healer who was renown for his ability to cure hopelessly
Lords of the Earth
||"Welcome to the Maya/Aztec/Inca of the Lords of the Earth
a Web site, which deals with the Archeology and Anthropology of the
Americas. These disciplines are based on the study of a specific location,
then expanding via concentric circles, into the surrounding areas in order
to identify possible diffusion among the various polities. However, as with
any bulls eye target, at times an arrow (or spear) from a foreign source
will strike any one of the defined circles, creating a tear in the fabric
called diffusion. Until the source of the arrow is discovered, there can be
no sensible explanation of the culture."
||"Columbus did not realize that the gift
of maize was far more valuable than the spices or gold he hoped to find. He
had no way of knowing that the history of maize traced back some 8,000 years
or that it represented the most remarkable plant breeding accomplishment of
all time. He might have been embarrassed if he had understood that then, as
now, this plant developed by peoples he judged poor and uncivilized far
outstripped in productivity any of the cereals bred by Old World farmers
--wheat, rice, sorghum, barley, and rye."
||"The Maya developed a sophisticated calendar. The ritual
calendar that developed in Mesoamerica used a count of 260 days. This
calendar gave each day a name, much like our days of the week. There were 20
day names, each represented by a unique symbol. The days were numbered from
1 to 13. Since there are 20 day names, after the count of thirteen was
reached, the next day was numbered 1 again. The 260-day or sacred count
calendar was in use throughout Mesoamerica for centuries, probably before
the beginning of writing."
||"In addition, while the order of the glyphs given above
is the general case, individual glyphs may be smaller (the ISIG can be one
column wide), larger (the long count glyphs can each occupy two columns,
especially when the head variants of the numbers are used), or can be
compressed or combined so that two glyphs occupy a single glyph block."
||"The Mayans devised a counting system that was able to
represent very large numbers by using only 3 symbols, a dot, a bar,
and a symbol for zero, or completion, usually a shell. The chart above shows
the first complete cycle of numbers. Like our numbering system, they used
place values to expand this system to allow the expression of very large
||"Instead of ten digits like we have today, the Maya used
a base number of 20. (Base 20 is vigesimal.) They also used a system of bar
and dot as "shorthand" for counting. A dot stood for one and a bar stood for
||"The Mesoamerican sacred calendar daysigns
are transformative archetypal energies. They are considered minor deities or
gods. What is
called on this site the Ancient Mayan count of days is the most widely used
count by the Maya tribes. This count is also known as the True Count. The
Tolteca (Aztec) calendar uses the same count and different glyphs and names."
Meteors and the
||"One of the few dateable events among the various records
of native Americans was the 1833 appearance of the Leonid meteor shower.
Historically recognized as one of the greatest meteor storms on record, it
made a lasting impression among the peoples of North America."
Mexican Home Remedies Project
||"Folk medicine is the most extensively studied component
of Mexican-American traditional culture in South Texas. Research in the area
has focused primarily on five or six folk illness syndromes and on the
non-herbal treatments of curanderos, the healers par excellence in Mexican
and Mexican-American traditional culture (Dodson 1951, Rubel 1966, Madsen
1964, Kiev 1968, Trotter and Chavira 1981, Romano 1965, Graham 1985, and
others). While scholars have given great attention to the ritual treatments
for such folk illness syndromes as mal de ojo, empacho, mollera caída, susto,
mal puesto, and latido, they have failed to carefully document and explore
as carefully the herbal remedies often used in conjunction with ritual
of the Nazca Lines
||"The Nazca Desert is a high arid plateau which stretches
37 miles between the towns of Nazca and Palpa in southern Peru. Hundreds of
square miles of this dry, rocky plain are marked with lines, triangles and
other geometric shapes, some running for more than five miles in a straight
line. There are also giant drawings including a monkey, a spider, birds,
reptiles, and whales. The desert markings, believed to have been made
thousands of years ago, made little impression on occasional travelers who
viewed them from ground level, but when they were spotted by aircraft in the
1930's they caught the world's attention. They have since been surveyed,
mapped and studied. Only two questions remain—who made them, and why?"
Native Americans and the Environment
||"Welcome to our web site! You will find thousands of
Internet and published resources described and cataloged at this site. We
also have a document archive and a case studies section where we address
specific issues. Please
e-mail us about new web sites and books."
Native GIS - GIS & Indigenous
to an invitation to submit this essay, I regard this opportunity as an
honor, and I am gratified. The ESRI Conservation Program coordinator,
Charles Convis, extended this invitation, and it presents his ever
willingness to always include Native people in his program activities. This
first issue profiles only a few of the unique endeavors of the North
American aboriginal people. These activities are very meaningful examples of
how Native people are embracing the spatial information technologies."
||"An internet resource for
indigenous ethno-technology focusing on the arts of Eastern Woodland Indian
Peoples, providing historical & contemporary background with instructional
how-to's & references."
RAFI Communique Index
||"Despite mounting opposition from national governments
and United Nations’ agencies, work on Terminator and Traitor (genetic trait
control) moves full speed ahead. After Monsanto and AstraZeneca publicly
vowed not to commercialize suicide seeds in 1999, governments and civil
society organizations were lulled into thinking that the crisis had passed."
on Rock Art & Astronomy
||General Rock Art site.
Rural Advancement Foundation International
||"According to information
received by RAFI, Monsanto's CEO Robert Shapiro contacted CARE's President,
Peter Bell, inviting CARE officials to discuss ways in which Monsanto may be
able to use its technologies for the benefit of food security in the South.
Whether this is an attempt to resurrect Monsanto's scheme to provide
micro-credit ("soft") loans to Third World farmers in order to market its
proprietary pesticides and genetically-modified seeds remains to be seen."
Sacred Sky of the Navajo and Pueblo
||"According to the Navajo
religion, the Universe is a very delicately balanced thing. If this balance
is upset, some disaster - usually an illness - will follow. To restore the
balance and harmony means performing one of the many Navajo chants or ways.
These complex ceremonies involve the use of herbs, prayers, songs and
SANDPAINTINGS. The sandpainting is done is a careful and sacred manner,
according to the ancient knowledge of the art."
Seeds of Strength
for Hopis & Zunis
||"The Hopi Native American homeland is in northern Arizona
and the Zuni Native American homeland is in western New Mexico. Many members
of both these communities continue to farm, garden, and ranch, as well as
pursue many other professions. Hopi, Zuni and other Native American farmers
in the southwest have developed their own varieties of crops originally from
present-day Central America and southern Mexico---for example the yellow,
blue, red, white, speckled and black corn and bean varieties, and varieties
of squash. In addition, over centuries Native American farmers also adapted
crops introduced from Europe, Asia and Africa---like peaches, wheat and
watermelons The resulting local repertoire of farmer--developed folk
varieties (FVs) is a unique heritage of these peoples."
||"Welcome to CIESIN's Thematic Guides on the Human
Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Thematic Guides offer overviews
of some of the key topics and issues that pertain to human interactions in
the environment and global change. The primary objective of the Thematic
Guides is to provide a tool that allows researchers, policy makers,
educators, and the public to quickly access background materials on key
global change issues, and to locate key data sets and information resources.
The guides are also designed to complement data-access tools like the
Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Catalog Search Tool by
providing context and background information."
Food, Health and Nutrition
||"What we eat -- where it comes from, how it is raised,
processed, cooked -- affects our health in many ways. Traditional native
diets in those few places in the world where people still mostly eat what
they raise, hunt, gather, fish -- have been found to promote health and long
life, for reasons only gradually coming to be understood."
American Tobacco Seed Bank and Education Program
||"Hello everyone, it's time for another reminder about the
traditional tobacco seeds and leaves available from our program at the
University of New Mexico. Sorry for cross-posting, but it's important that
the message get out to the most people, since we have discovered that there
is a tremendous need in the native community for traditional tobacco."
U Tab Kin:
Cords of the Sun
||"In the Maya area of Mexico,
Honduras and Guatemala, in pre-Columbian times there was a whole series of
different systems to calculate the time in relation with a number of
physical and astronomical phenomena. Understanding and interpreting the
various calendar systems largely contributes to the decipherment of
hieroglyphic writing, especially when it concerns astronomical phenomena,
such as solar and lunar eclipses, the 4 Venus periods and the movements of